Rhinestones ... From the word breathes fashion, glamor, glamor. Rhinestones adorn underwear, electrical outlets, various crown of "Miss". Chandeliers, of course, is also decorated. Will you come to the salon world, and certainly the seller to let you gorgeous classic chandelier with tassels, and breathy declares, pointing to a sparkly pendants: Straaasss! Swarovski! This crystal ... Not fake, not some China! And then can not help thinking that the word Strass (crystals, Strass) became widely known, indicating it was a fake.
In 1758, jeweler, chemist and Strass (Georges Frederic Strass, 1701-1773) received a glass with a high (50%) of lead and used it to simulate the production of diamond stones. Although the first successful attempt to produce "a special kind of glass, resembling crystal" was made by George Ravenscroft in 1677 yet (he added the oxides of lead in the glass, ensuring greater transparency), it is similar to the product Strass gems confusing unenlightened inhabitants of that gave the fraudsters an opportunity to earn a nice jewelry. Soon the fake diamonds (and almost emerald, topaz, and the pseudo-quasi-amethyst) became known as rhinestones. Obtaining high-quality lead crystal (in the modern classification of optical glasses - heavy flint), as well as cut rhinestones have a separate area of jewelry. But in people's memory for a long time the word crystals associated with the hoax, fraud.
Before we return now to the world of jeans decorated with shiny sparkles and sparkling chandeliers multistage Fausting, consider another playful dishonesty brilliance of crystal pendants. Rock Crystal ... Crystal. Swarovski Crystal, Crystal Asfour ... Optical glass, heavy flint ... And no one said that the lead crystal, the legacy of Strass, and Crystal Mountain - it's the same thing!
The name rhinestone coined the Greek scholar Theophrastus. It occurs from the Greek kristallos - ice. Ancient jewelers lens made of crystal melted metal. The people of Tibet used crystal balls (as a lens concentrating germicidal ultraviolet light) in the treatment of wounds. Cut crystal bowls and cups - and this is one of the ancient Greek myths of gods, heroes and kings of ancient Greek wine, ate plenty. In the heat of the Egyptian pharaohs was applied to a smooth hand and a cold stone balls in the Arctic - to cool the royal arms.
And, of course, magical ice was used in amulets and jewelry. And used to this day, despite the fact that in the XVII century, the famous English physicist Robert Boyle finally and clearly identified as a mineral rock crystal, and the prosaic modern science calls it silicon dioxide. And, in the XVIII century, the road kind of pink rock crystal - amethyst - cleverly replaced the glass, made by technology Strasse, with the addition of cobalt oxide. To avoid confusion, rock crystal, and is called the mountain, as opposed to just a crystal - glass with the addition of lead oxide (in modern manufacturing crystal along with this compound is also used barium and zinc oxides).
So, on the chandelier crystal pendants - they are not made of rock crystal (with the exception of exclusive models), as well as crystals on the belt buckle - not always diamonds. But what, after all, the difference, if beautiful? And the tassels on the crystal chandelier - this is not such a simple thing as a plastic chandelier pendants Cascade (without fail in the Soviet Union was regarded as belonging room or living room). The play of light, practical and prestige - it all depends on three components: the material cut, the name of the manufacturer.
Besides the already mentioned crystal, in the lighting industry for the manufacture of pendants and other items commonly used scattering and other optical glass, with lower levels of lead and other additives. GOST 24315-80 states that if the content of lead, barium or zinc is at least 10%, the production is crystal glass, crystal malosvintsovy contains 18-24% lead oxide, lead crystal road - 24-30% Elite vysokosvintsovy - more than 30%. European Classification: Crystalline (Crystalline) - 1-15% lead oxide, Crystal (Crystal) - 16-23%, Full Lead Crystal (lead crystal) - 24-30%. Dorgen European Crystal: Crystal D'Arques (France), Riedel (Austria), Spiegelau, and Bauscher (Germany) with a 24-percentage of lead oxide and 33 per cent Waterford (Ireland). Swarovski STRASS crystal with the use of lead oxide content of not less than 32%.
What gives these supplements? First, the weight. Crystal glass is heavier. Secondly - strength. Thirdly, of course, the cost increases with the increase in the percentage of additives. But most importantly - these supplements provide a unique play of light on the products of crystal from chandeliers to the pompous little beads. Dry, in a scientific way, talking about the high dispersion and thin enough to cut the strength of the material. And apart from the chandelier, if you remember the ancient Greek heroes, raising the ringing crystal goblets ... - melodic and long - do not be confused with a dull clatter of glass jars.
Cutting and polishing give the product a finished look, largely determining its value. Sharp edges, large quantities and geometric accuracy of multi-colored game pleasing to the eye glare. The quality of the surface also determines the ease of care - if we're talking about chandeliers, for example, the dust and tiny water spray does not settle on a soundly-treated crystals. The shape and color of the product, too much to define. Design necklaces, pendants and other elements of the chandelier should dress for fashion, if the suspension had been popular with a soft, sleek, and almond-shaped, now also popular bevelled edges and asymmetrical compositions. There are traditional forms, invariably adorn classic lamps: chaton (cut like a gem stone), flatback (flat diamond), drop, oak leaf, salt crystal.
Appointment chandelier is quite utilitarian, but the fixtures have long been assigned the role of status accessory interior. And where is the status - there is often, and luxury. And where luxury - there names. Swarovski, Preciosa, Bohemian crystal ... Remember, "Mimino" the court found that the chandelier, which the hero accidentally touched the chair, was not a Bohemian? In addition to well-known manufacturers of crystal, and is well-known factory of the world that use it in their works. And, although the brand Swarovski also manufactures lamps (mostly - insertions), the whole world knows the names of manufacturers of crystal chandeliers - such as Fausting, Schonbek.
Someone looking for a luxurious and expensive light, preferring not so much refinement forms as the number of expensive crystal, gilded splendor and design. Others want to match the interior home to his inner world, looking for a chandelier, executed on design, suitable for them. Still others believe that the appointment of interior light - illuminate the living area, and all there tassels and pretzels just complicate the problem. But even the most rigorous, ascetic, and tech designers and manufacturers - no, no, and will include a fraction of crystal in their works. After the game highlights on the crystal is always pleasing to the eye - and Crystal Light makes the world friendlier.